One of my favourite museums that I visited in Amsterdam was Ons' Lieve Heer op Solder or in English, Our Lord in the Attic, a 17th century canal house that has a hidden church built into the top three floors. The Catholic Church was built during the 1660s when Catholics were unable to worship in public so held services in this hidden church. I found the audioguide that was free with admission to be very interesting.
The museum is open seven days a week but I suggest checking their website here to check for hours if you intend to visit. It costs €9.00 for adults but is free with the I amsterdam card if you do end up getting it.
You also get to wear these super fun slippers over your shoes to walk on the straw mats.